Tag Archives: debt

THAT HOW MUCH COST IN THE USSR !

ЧТО СКОЛЬКО СТОИЛО В СССР

Most of us grew up in the Soviet Union. While money is not translated at the exchange rate of the National Bank in another currency. Let us remember that, and how much can be bought at the Soviet rubles. Let’s start with one of the ruble.

ЧТО СКОЛЬКО СТОИЛО В СССР

One ruble a complete meal in the dining room; – A trip of 100 km hitchhiker (penny kilometer); – 33 glasses of lemonade syrup; 50 calls from a payphone; 100 boxes of matches; 5 cups Sundae” or 10 – dairy ice cream; 20 trips in the bus or the subway; 4 loaves of white bread (to 900-1000 grams, but not like now); – 5 liters of milk on tap; 20 going to the movies on the matinee; 2 bottles of good beer (also renting); – 8 packs of cigarettes bad (Pamir); By the end of the summer, you could buy at the market 6 kg or 3 kg of watermelons melons; 5 trips to the barber shop or a bath; The cost of daily beds “savage” in the holiday season in the south.

ЧТО СКОЛЬКО СТОИЛО В СССР

ЧТО СКОЛЬКО СТОИЛО В СССР

Three rubles dinner for 5-6 persons in a factory or school cafeteria; – Lunch at the restaurant on one; A good book; – A doll or other toy domestic production; – A bottle of wine normal (such as “Crimean”); Kultpohod the output with the whole family, including a snack; – A pack of imported cigarettes; – The amount of the child in his pocket, where he is terribly jealous of other children.

ЧТО СКОЛЬКО СТОИЛО В СССР

ЧТО СКОЛЬКО СТОИЛО В СССР

Five rubles kilogram clippings on the market or 2 pounds of meat at the store; A bottle of vodka (with snacks); Almost monthly rent for a family; Taxi ride in style”; Pounds of very good chocolates.

ЧТО СКОЛЬКО СТОИЛО В СССР

ЧТО СКОЛЬКО СТОИЛО В СССР

Ten rubles the amount that occupied until payday, it – which is not ashamed to remind occupant; – The universal currency for various household services; – A huge stick expensive cooperative sausage; – Euch as cars or billiards;

ЧТО СКОЛЬКО СТОИЛО В СССР

ЧТО СКОЛЬКО СТОИЛО В СССР

Twenty-five rubles a plane ticket for local airlines (eg, Leningrad – Moscow: 18 rubles); Spree “in full” in the restaurant; Services of expensive prostitutes;

ЧТО СКОЛЬКО СТОИЛО В СССР

ЧТО СКОЛЬКО СТОИЛО В СССР

Fifty rubles: Children’s bicycles; Small pension; Scholarship student horoshist; Stay in the union Elbrus 2 weeks – 30 rubles;

ЧТО СКОЛЬКО СТОИЛО В СССР

Hundred rubles a plane ticket to the south (there and back); Monthly salary of poor engineering graduate student (or rather, a salary of 120 rubles); – A good pension.

The Ukrainian government is preparing a social collapse !

Postmaydannyh dozen months brought a lot of hardship to the Ukrainian people, starting with the Civil War and ending with the fall in living standards, devaluation of hryvnia, wage cuts, rising unemployment, prices and the cost of utilities. But it seems that the difficulties and troubles are only beginning Ukrainians, because they have to live in an open regulation of the International Monetary Fund policies of the government of Ukraine. In the period from 9 to 18 December in Kiev will work his mission. As the head of the Fund in Ukraine Jerome Your mission will begin debate on policy with the Ukrainian authorities in the context of Fund-supported economic reform program.” Cabinet prepared for the meeting.

* * *

Appointing a member of the government ministers foreigners Kiev went even further Georgia and the Baltic countries, known for their voluntary status of the colonies of the West. If these countries to the higher public authorities were only representatives of the title, as they say they have, nation, though with foreign citizenship, among Kiev “Varyag” Ukrainian only one widely publicized successful businesswomanN.Yaresko, became minister Finance of Ukraine. The official reason invitation of foreign ministers was the fight against corruption and reform, supposedly brings Ukraine closer to European standards.

What is the nature of these reforms, it is clear from the proposals for budget cuts that are made in the Cabinet N.Yaresko. Exactly how and warned at the time the opponentsEuromaidan European integration will be at the expense of ordinary citizens of Ukraine. First of all, the Ukrainians expect the abolition of the constitutional provisions on free education and healthcare, as well as reducing the period of compulsory education for children in schools from 11 to 9 years. Finance Minister referred to the European experience, where compulsory education lasts up to 15-16 years. The benefit is not applied experience of Georgia, where secondary education ends at 12 years. Canceled and regulations prohibiting reduce the number of medical and educational institutions, as well as provisions for mandatory budget financing of health and education in the amount of not less than 10% of national income. But the food in hospitals and schools will be paid, as well as training in children’s and youth sports schools.

Students will be deprived of scholarships and the right to free travel with students and teaching staff, and teachers at the same time expects an increase in load. Will be eliminated indexation scholarships, which according to the new requirements of the Ministry of Finance will receive only persons with disabilities and students from low-income families, and the education sector will lose additional payments for scientific degrees and titles.

A lot of surprises awaits Chernobyl. The government plans to cancel the zone of increased radiation monitoring. Themselves as people affected by the Chernobyl disaster, will lose the right to spa treatment, increased scholarships, compensation and benefits, related to category 4, the monthly payments to families with children, extra pay for work in contaminated areas and compensation for lost property.

Abolish and payment deportees financial assistance for the completion of individual construction, increasing seniority for the purpose of pensions, preferential drug supply and compensation value lost due to the deportation of buildings and other property. This concerns, first of all, Crimean Tatars, who left the territory of Crimea, wishing to stay in Ukraine. Rewarded for showing patriotism, nothing to say.

Cease support of public organizations, and payments of cash rewards athletes halved.

* * *

Significant deterioration expects pensioners. Retirement age for women will be increased to 10 years for men for 5 years, and the experience necessary to obtain the retirement pension will increase by 7 years. When the permanent reduction of production and the fall of the economy, which entails a rise in unemployment, to get such experience would be very difficult. In order to “social justice” will freeze the size of the average wage for the calculation of pensions at the level of 2014 to pensions allowances to children of war will now be determined by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, while they themselves do not indexed pensions would be “to stabilize the economy of Ukraine.” Another unpleasant surprise. From now on pensions will be recalculated using the percentage of the amount listed in the Pension Fund contributions rather than from wages, which significantly reduce the amount of accrued pensions, because of inflation, pension contributions in the 1990s and 2010s – a “two huge difference “.

Not the fact that the existing pensions will remain even for those who are already receiving pension payments. In the quest to minimize the length of service and reduce the size of government pensions is studying “bestexperience of the Baltic states. The delegation of the Ministry of Social Policy and the Pension Fund visited Lithuania, where the parties discussed the possibility of social security pensions to count the people who pay the pension for the experience gained in Lithuania and Ukraine. This is a new principle of counting the Soviet time, according to which each state would have calculated the pension and paid to have it only for the acquired experience in it. In Lithuania, when calculating pensions in the first place is considered to be work experience since 1990, and the experience in the Soviet period is taken into account with a much lower ratio, because then the people working for the occupiers.” Given the rhetoric of the Kiev regime, a similar solution can accept and Kiev.

Pensioners will lose the right to free travel, as well as benefits for housing and communal services, the acquisition of solid fuel, gas and telecommunications services. Targeted financial assistance in these cases is provided only for 6 million. Poorest pensioners. Stops and the action of a state pilot project on the regulation of prices for medicines for the treatment of individuals with hypertension. Naturally, it is more likely to hit it on pensioners, depriving them of the possibility of acquiring at a low price of essential drugs.

* * *

However, the sick, as well as to give birth to children in the new “Europeanized” Ukraine can not be anyone. Payouts for sick leave will be reduced from 60-100% of the average wage up to 45-80%. Trimming payments for temporary incapacity, the Minister refers to the AmericanEuropean experience, according to which workers in France and Italy the first 20 days of illness receive 50% of salary, and in the following days, 70%, and Slovakia, for example, only 25% and 55% .

Planned reduction Insurance Fund of accidents and occupational diseases. From now on, the size of payments to victims at work or members of their families shall not exceed 100 times the minimum wage and receive compensation for moral damage is impossible.

IMF demands deprive the majority of single mothers the right to receive child support, and assistance for child birth will be given only with the material conditions of the family. Parents also have to forget about state funding rehabilitation of children in the camps, free children’s and youth schools, Christmas gifts. Themselves improving facilities and spa businesses are removed from the allowance.”

* * *

But that’s not all. Every Ukrainian waiting for a new tax system, the introduction of requirements which are annexed to the Association Agreement with the EU. Now, citizens will pay 30% of the purchase of expensive goods, if they can not prove the origin of income. Under the new law, which takes effect from 1 January 2015, any purchase of goods worth more than 10 times the minimum wage, ie, 12 810 UAH., Can be done only by bank transfer with a passport and an identification code. Tax authorities will get the right to charge the amount of the tax, as well as acquire the right to seize the property of physical persons and to bring the tax police for the document verification of income and expenditure of the Ukrainians.

Thus, the income tax rate unconfirmed far exceeds the amount of tax that is paid from the proceeds confirmed. Under the tax rate will fall to discriminatory and currency transfer people working abroad and remit money to their families. In addition to numerous opportunities to abuse and corruption, the negative effect of such “European” measures extended to sales in the car market, real estate, household appliances and other goods of high value, and so going through hard times. That, in turn, will lead to a reduction in income entrepreneurs and a further reduction in the tax base.

* * *

What consequences coup and Association Agreement with the EU will be exactly as it was known long before the call to enter the M.Nayema maidan. But Sweet propagandists deceived Ukrainians do not heed the many warnings. The collapse of the economic and social development there, as well as scattered protests. While scattered.

To cure the disease, it is necessary to understand its cause. And the reason is the thoughtless destruction of the economy in favor of the provisions of the colonial association agreement, with no prospect of joining the EU, as was repeatedly told by representatives of the European Union. The upcoming fight ruined anti-human henchmen reforms Foreign population should finally focus not on consequences, and causes.

Generational theory: the world is approaching the tip of another global crisis !

 Generatsioonide teooria: maailm läheneb järjekordse globaalse kriisi tipule

Sorry,Google translation !

Authors William Strauss and Neil Howe has become known for his theory in terms of generations, the mood of the population of certain repetitive cycles. Comparing the history of the theory of these cycles can be noted that the US and the rest of the developed world is increasingly growing in the middle of the global crisis, which reaches a dangerous peak in about fifteen years.
 
In the book The Fourth Turningwrote the authors of the crisis prompted by the amount of precipitation may be something quite ordinary, such as elections or halvaendelist as the economy crashed. This, however, leads to spark a chain reaction in which the basic elements (debt, the disappearance of the middle class, global unrest) connection and lead society to the brink of rupture.
fourth Generatsioonide teooria: maailm läheneb järjekordse globaalse kriisi tipule
Masse led by an invisible government

Strauss and Howe said that the world is a major problem is that those in power to think linearly, making decisions based on their own interests, but in the belief that their actions do not have consequences and that their position does not invalidate anything. In fact, the history and the people running the mood in circular cycles, forming a pattern of a certain regularity. Those who have not taken the time to examine what the consequences of this behavior led, are now struggling with understanding the changes.

Linearly thinkers are accustomed to human advancement can be controlled by various measures, which are described by Edward Bernaysi book “Propaganda”. Namely, the organized habits and opinions of the people conscious and intelligent manipulation of an important element in democratic society. Those who run this mechanism, constitute an invisible government which actually prevails throughout the country. Prevail over the people and their opinions and shape the tastes of the people whom they themselves have never heard of, but who understand the mental processes and social patterns of the masses. This type of control is, however, important to keep a large group of people working together as a functional society.

History repeats itself, the 80-year cycle

However, now come to a new level of cycling history, with the last 70 years, the plan will be worked cracked. Through the media lying, cheating, propaganda transmission, easily available credit, the so-called cheap oil, endless commercial expansion, effortless marketing, ongoing war, the banks and large corporations, elected politicians, high-class in favor of the tax system, and lobbying by the staff of the oligarchs benefit of written laws all of these have been created check the commoners and enrich the modern aristocracy, at least for the 2008 economic crisis. Linear thinkers in government, commerce, banking and the media confirm straightforward triumph of progress, while allowing recovery from the crisis, but in reality, they deliberately ignore the evidence of the history of the situation from a different evolution because they recognize how vulnerable their positions of power.

StraussHowe theory is that history repeats itself in cycles of about 80 years a new crisis comes about 60 years after the previous approach, the crisis peak occurs around 80 years after the last peak of the crisis. Each such a turning point, however, swept away the last of the existing social order. According to this theory, the US kriisitsüklid occurred as follows: first crisis was the American War of Independence (1775-1794 took place, was the peak of the crisis year of 1781), secondly, the US Civil War (from 1861 to 1865, the peak year 1863); thirdly, the Great Depression and World War II (1929-1946 , culminated in 1944), and the fourth global economic crisis (2008 to about 2029, presumably peak of 2025).

Misleading the People’s total

In September 2008, the global economic crisis that started two decades, probably noted the length of the episode begins, whose harsh conditions become progressively worse, the closer we come to the tip of the crisis. This time, most of those in power are trying to implement all kinds of fiscal measures, valeinformeerimise organizing campaigns to keep the attention of the people dispersed and confused houses. Already have managed to convince a large part of the public at 0% interest rates, while the addition of 1 trillion dollars (per year), the already large national debt of the United States, allowing the Federal Reserve to buy Wall Street 3 trillion dollars in debt. It has, however, created a high level of inflation, energy, food, health care and student areas and the real wage decline. All of these changes are advertised as the necessary steps to normalize the situation, but in fact serve only benefit from them the most affluent.

The current state of the US economic, financial, political and legal system indicates a malfunction and does not remember a strong structure to be working properly. This fact, however, masked, and the crowd’s attention is diverted humblest problems – as long as that is not noticed how the state vaesub corporations and bankers skeemitamiste through.

Those in power have no way to sell their arguments on the development, even if the enormous amount of evidence suggests the opposite. In order given to the public’s attention to other issues such as the massacres between the parties nääklused and the constant threat of terrorism in the unseen. A large part of the population is not interested even in these issues and happy to hold it is sufficient mass culture – different contents empty televised fancy celebrity”, independent thinking and discussing foreign films cinema, an obsession with social media, the importance of rapid and short-term rewarding for fast food, etc. The world is filled with trivial problems, unintelligent käpiknukkude, clock propaganda and mindless consumption.

The problems get worse in the world

All of these measures to calm the crowd, however, at some point begin to crack. History repetition of cycles can not be stopped – the people will wake up and demand change that is reshaping the current social and economic environment.

Strauss and Howe wrote his theory in 1997, based on centuries of generations, based on the analysis of non-events, but the mood of crisis in generations, the basic elements. Even before the 2008 economic crisis in the beginning, it was clear that these basic elements – the debt, the disappearance of the middle class, and global unrest and there were ägenemas. Mass media tend to ignore these problems, showing them smaller than they actually are, but if you do a bit of research, it is clear that the problems get worse. Are struggling with debt in the United States, China and several European Union countries, trying to cope with the ever-growing credit debt, student loans, housing bubbles and oil prices.

The disappearance of the middle class does not come as a surprise, given that unemployment is a major problem in the developed countries, and more than 50% of the world’s assets is only 1% of people in. The US is a major problem in the militarization of local police stations, officials preparing for massive unrest, which alienates communities of their rulers, and the so-called defenders. Global anxiety are good examples of Hong Kong, the Middle East and held in Ukraine, as well as the direction of Japan’s more aggressive foreign policy.

Propaganda will not be able to change the course of history

Propaganda can be formed opinions, but can not change the course of history or facts. US national debt has reached a record 17.5 trillion, an increase of 2 billion a day. Consumer debt has risen to new heights, reaching 3.2 trillion. Global debt level exceeds 230 trillion dollars, accounting for 313% of the global GDP. Most of the focus of launching huge corporations earn profits. If countries are trying to solve their debt problems, allowing bankers, politicians and government bureaucrats to determine more debt, reducing interest rates to zero and to enrich the oligarchs, it all ends in disaster. People suffering must be interrupted at some point, and this may occur if the crisis worsens and people are discovering how their assets, hopes and dreams are destroyed.

Given the high percentage of the population is unemployed or working in low-paying part-time job, it is easy to understand how you can grow discontent with the current system. This is how the situation is managed anti meeleavaldamisega, 2011, showed us the Occupy Wall Street protests. Instead, in order to initiate a dialogue with the protesters, the search for solutions that would help ease the situation and take account of their voice, instead of protesters began to oppress the help of the police forces. At the same time it was shown in the media as protesters näotuid, riotously vain young people who just want to cause chaos. In the later stages of the mass media of the United States came into force at the Occupy protests in complete silence – Contribute to the fact that if they do not talk about, it is believed that no protest is taking place, and the whole business will sink into oblivion.

Fight terror waged by the people behind the mask luuratakse

In addition to public voting irregularities Edward Snowden revelations have also shown that the government does not respect people’s right to privacy, at least not if they can justify the violation of privacy, national security issues. If real, these alleged threats to people is, it let everyone decide on their own, but it is certain that the alleged terrorist threat to fight under the guise of a militarized local police forces to monitor citizens’ reluctance to come into, the spread of ideas and potential leaders of the protest.

Global unrest has reached a new level when you look at Brazil, Mexico, Hong Kong, Egypt, Spain, Greece, France and Turkey jerkily demonstrations. It is also lokkamas violence in Ukraine, Iraq and Syria. A number of armed conflicts can be blamed on the decisions of the US armed with various dictators who were useful to them at some point. There are also problems former CIA plans that have undermined the influence of various democratically elected governments. Rampant violence, however, reap the benefits of the war industry and banks can be enormous income from the sale of weapons of war will be financed through borrowing. Contributing to the war is therefore practically equal to the national debt slavery arms and dependence.

What is not discussed in the mass media

The mass media do not talk about how the United States has historically been an armed terrorists who are killing in Syria now massively both soldiers and civilians. It also ignores the fact that, under the reign of Hussein’s Iraq was a modern, stable, non-religious, the oil-producing country, which was not of Al Qaeda or crazily violence. All that changed when the US invaded a sovereign state valeettekäänetel, wasted 1 trillion dollars in state assets, killed more than 100,000 Iraqis and left tallermaaks religious violence in Iraq. Also, do not talk about how the Libya deposed former dictator auxillary leaving the country into chaos and civil war.

The world has reached a point where the heads of the various decisions have an extremely sensitive topics (debt, the disappearance of the middle class, and global anxiety) to high pressure. If the crisis worsens and reaches its peak, the world can be thrown into chaos, which hopefully will not be completed using a nuclear missile of a button. Sooner or later, the debt bubble burst in the world, which leads to the property, labor, rights, and loss of confidence. This process is triggered by the massive civil unrest, which has been quietly preparing for the years of decline of the middle class and the destruction of the current structure of society.

Where in the world are exacerbated by resource wars, religious extremism and the spread of nationalism, the global war becomes an increasing probability. Where would our world and society at the heart of this crisis is moving, it is not yet certain. This could result in a crash if the progress, but it is certain that cooperation, sharing of responsibility, bold positions of peace and co-existence, and inspired leaders are essential to survive the upcoming challenges.

Sources: The Burning Platform (longer article in English, we recommend you read!), Wikipedia.

В противостоянии с США Россия возвращает себе роль сверхдержавы ! / In the confrontation with the United States Russia is regaining its role of a superpower !

В противостоянии с США Россия возвращает себе роль сверхдержавы

Отношения РФ и США наладятся не скоро, уверен автор статьи в иранском издании Iras

Для восстановления своего положения сверхдержавы на международной арене Россия реализует две стратегии.

Первая – это стратегия многополярности для оспаривания международного положения Соединенных Штатов. Вторая – это энергетическая стратегия.

Рассмотрению этих двух стратегий и посвящена настоящая статья.

В 1944 году, на завершающем этапе Второй мировой войны термин «сверхдержава» использоваться по отношению к двум государствам – США и Советскому Союзу. Из-за этого в биполярной системе международных отношений во главе двух блоков Запада и Востока оказались два государства, занимающие ведущие позиции в политике, экономике и военной сфере.

В 1991 году с распадом СССР и крушением коммунистической идеологии внешняя политика России поблекла на международной арене, утратив всякую инициативу, поэтому Соединенные Штаты стали единственной сверхдержавой в целом мире.

Девяностые годы прошлого века отмечены острыми политическими и экономическими кризисами в России, ситуация в которой была усугублена крайней нестабильностью и общественными волнениями. По этой причине у страны не было возможности играть заметную роль в международных делах, а экономическая слабость лишала ее всех шансов в соперничестве с Западом.

В тот период Россия фактически утратила свое международное влияние, и причины этого были самые разные: развал целой империи и возвращение к границам XVII века, экономический спад и социальный кризис, экологические катастрофы, ослабление государства и армии, рост преступности и коррупции, шаткая экономика и высокая инфляция.

Однако, начиная с 2000 года, и особенно с приходом к власти Путина Россия заняла реалистичную позицию по вопросам внутренней и внешней политики и стала добиваться восстановления своего положения сверхдержавы на международной арене.

Сейчас вопрос заключается в следующем: какую стратегию реализует Россия для возвращения утраченных некогда позиций?

Для ответа на этот вопрос необходимо отметить, что в последние годы для достижения этой цели Россия придерживается двух стратегий. Во-первых, это стремление к многополярности и вызов положению США в международной политике. Во-вторых, это реализация определенных мер в энергетической сфере.

Стратегия многополярности является ответом на политику экспансии и однополярности, проводимую Соединенными Штатами. Энергетическая стратегия служит осуществлению национальных интересов России во всем мире и особенно в странах Европы и Азии.

Российская стратегия многополярности

В настоящее время Россия строит свое внешнюю политику на принципе многополярности. Она делает это с учетом международного положения США и в целях обеспечения собственных интересов в плане безопасности.

Судя по официальным заявлениям представителей российского руководства, русские добиваются проведения независимой внешней политики, направленной на создание многополярного мира, в котором Россия должна занять свое место и тем самым сузить гегемонию Соединенных Штатов в международных делах. Чтобы этого достичь, Россия, решив свои наиболее острые экономические проблемы и улучшив собственное финансовое положение, опирается на военный потенциал.

С момента прихода к власти Путин анонсировал три основополагающих принципа своего курса: модернизация экономики, достижение видной роли в процессах мировой конкуренции и восстановление положения России в качестве новой крупной державы.

Тактика и конкретные шаги российских политиков доказывают тот факт, что они крайне недовольны односторонними действиями Соединенных Штатов. Явно с 2007 года, а тайно еще раньше, Россия, поверив в собственные силы благодаря достигнутым успехам в разных сферах геополитики и геоэкономики, проводит политику «прямого сопротивления» американскому волюнтаризму и гегемонии.

Россия при Путине официально не признает однополярный режим как упорядочивающий принцип устройства мира и считает, что он противоречит ее национальным интересам.

Например, в своем весьма резком выступлении на Мюнхенской конференции по безопасности в 2007 году Путин бросил вызов односторонней тактике США и попыткам этой страны установить в мире режим однополярности. Еще тогда российский президент заявил следующее: «Режим однополярности не только не приемлем, но и его установление в нынешних условиях невозможно в принципе».

Он опроверг утверждение о том, что в современной международной обстановке существует «один центр власти, один центр принятия решений, один хозяин и одно правительство», и ясно определил намерение России добиваться установления разумного баланса интересов всех игроков, присутствующих на международной арене.

Другими словами, режиму однополярности, сложившемуся после окончания холодной войны, так и не удалось окончательно закрепиться. Наступательная политика в энергетической сфере с акцентом на собственное положении энергетической сверхдержавы, масштабная программа модернизации армии, крупные поставки вооружения другим странам, несогласие с установлением систем противовоздушной обороны в Восточной Европе и отказ от Договора об обычных вооруженных силах в Европе (ДОВСЕ), установление новых систем противоракетной обороны в Ленинградской области, поддержка ядерной программы Ирана, участие в сирийских событиях и помощь правительству Башара Асада и, что самое главное, отношение к последнему кризису на Украине – все это является ясным доказательством попыток России повысить свой статус в решении международных вопросов, результатом которых и стала напряженность в отношениях с Соединенными Штатами.

Российское руководство убеждено в том, что установленный США однополярный режим существует лишь временно, он неустойчив и действует несправедливо, поэтому последние события в мире, новые коалиции государств и появление таких держав, как Китай, Индия и Россия, бросают вызов этому режиму. Сторонники этой точки зрения считают, что сложившийся империалистический режим не отвечает современным международным условиям, и довольно скоро в мире установится новый баланс сил.

Таким образом, усиление напряженности между Россией и Соединенным Штатами убедило русских в том, что данный процесс может не только еще больше ослабить американцев, но и привести к их международной изоляции. Российское правительство, ссылаясь на современные события в мире и ослабление США из-за их неверной политики в последние годы, считает нынешнюю ситуацию вполне подходящей для превращения своей страны в крупную мировую державу, или, выражаясь иначе, межрегиональную силу, способную влиять на международную систему и принимаемые в ее рамках решения.

Россия решительно добивается нового распределения власти в мировых делах. Возрастающее стремление этой страны к новому разделению власти основывается на прямом несогласии с американской однополярностью и представлении о том, что управление международными делами едва ли возможно без участия российской дипломатии. Путем создания коалиции с такими державами, как Китай и Иран, Россия пытается положить конец волюнтаризму и политике силы Соединенных Штатов на международной арене.

На данном основании Россия позиционирует себя в качестве крупной державы и постоянно в разного рода обращениях по тем или иным международным вопросам критикует США за их однополярность, гегемонию и вмешательство во внутренние дела других государств. Президент Путин пытается позиционировать свою страну как державу, играющую мировое значение и активно участвующую в урегулировании глобальных проблем.

Между тем, Соединенные Штаты стремятся лишить Россию права участвовать в решении международных вопросов. Если Россия вновь окрепнет, влиянию и интересам США в соседних с нею регионах будет брошен серьезный вызов. Декларативные и практические меры России с целью постепенного изменения существующего положения и достижения более высокого уровня в решении судеб мира порождает у американского руководства чувства тревоги за собственное лидерство в международных делах после распада Советского Союза и все больше заставляет его оценивать ситуацию как фактическое сохранение статус-кво, поскольку Россия постепенно набирает силы, а США слабеют. Именно по этой причине США стараются создавать как можно ограничений на пути развития России.

Энергетическая стратегия России: энергоресурсы как рычаг политического давления

Суть внешней политики России при президенте Путине заключается в конкуренции за возвращение своей роли сверхдержавы. По мнению российского лидера, распад Советского Союза в 1991 году был самой большой трагедией ХХ века, поэтому он добивается восстановления позиций России, которые она имела еще в советскую эпоху. В этом ключе энергетическая стратегия России направлена на восстановление ее статуса сверхдержавы.

Обладая самыми большими в мире запасами газа и нефти, Россия на международной арене смогла продемонстрировать свою силу в противостоянии Европейскому Союзу и США. Используя скрытую политику угроз в энергетическом плане, кремлевское руководство полагает, что у Запада, который крайне нуждается в российских энергоресурсах, нет никаких шансов. Поэтому энергетика стала для России мощным рычагом контроля политики Европейского союза и стран на Ближнем Востоке и в Центральной Азии.

Свою энергетическую стратегию Россия разработала летом 2003 года, когда Владимир Путин отвел ей центральное место в российской дипломатии. Тогда в целях сохранения за Россией лидирующих позиций на мировом газовом рынке были предприняты меры для предотвращения диверсификации энергопоставок, особенно для европейских стран.

Запасы нефти и газа играют ключевую роль в возвращении России главной роли на мировой арене. И в Кремле, и в политических кругах других стран существует представление о том, что благодаря своим огромнейшим запасам энергоресурсов Россия способна вернуть себе позиции сверхдержавы. Не вызывает никаких сомнений тот факт, что Россия уже стала сверхдержавой в плане энергетики.

Сейчас эта страна относится к числу самых крупных поставщиков природного газа, а за период с 1998 по 2004 года российский экспорт нефти составил почти 48% от общего объема мировых поставок этого сырья. В настоящее время Россия поставляет на мировой рынок 22% природного газа и четверть от 40% газового импорта в Европу. Нефтяные поставки этой страны составляют 12% от мирового объема, в то время как в Европе доля «черного золота» из России составляет 22%.

Кроме того, Россия контролирует поставки нефти и газа из Туркмении и Казахстана. Таким образом, ее нефтяная дипломатия, в первую очередь, завязана на европейских странах, потому как экономически они сильно зависят от российской нефти. Европа осознает, что это является ее слабым местом, и поэтому ищет альтернативные поставки энергоресурсов.

Активность российской энергетической дипломатии ощущается и в Азии. В этот регион Россия поставляет всего лишь 3% своей нефти. Тем не менее ожидается, что к 2020 году этот экспорт может увеличиться до 20%. В связи с этим Россия пытается не ограничиваться привязанностью только к одному потребителю (имеется в виду Китай), а расширить круг покупателей своего топлива за счет Японии и Южной Кореи.

Итак, Россия превратилась в энергетическую сверхдержаву, поэтому она использует свою энергетическую стратегию для подъема собственного национального духа. Ее руководство заботится о сохранении территориального единства своей страны и предотвращении внешних угроз, в том числе и военного характера.

Для этого усилия Москвы направлены на то, чтобы использовать энергетический экспорт в качестве инструмента политики. Так, враждебные страны наказываются отказом осуществлять поставки в них российских энергоносителей, в то время как сильные дружественные государства наоборот получают всяческую поддержку, а их компаниям позволят инвестировать в развитие российской нефтегазовой отрасли.

Многие арабские страны тоже используют энергоресурсы в качестве инструмента политического давления, однако они бессильны в плане достижения своих целей и, в частности, не могут добиться поражения Израиля. Вместе с тем энергетика играет отрицательную роль в деле становления сверхдержавы. Дело в том, что зависимость от энергоресурсов обычно ведет к незначительному экономическому росту и политической нестабильности.

Однако здесь надо отметить, что в этом плане Россия отличает от других стран. До 1991 года эта страна была военной сверхдержавой, и после распада Советского Союза она частично сохранила его оружейный потенциал, включая ядерный арсенал и современные технологии. Кроме того, Россия, как и прежде Советский Союза, продолжает поставлять оружие в другие страны. Таким образом, потенциал этой страны основывается на огромных запасах энергоресурсов и советской военной технике, что и подкрепляет представление о ней как «энергетической сверхдержаве».

В настоящее время вместо подразделений Красной Армии для давления на Украину, кавказские и среднеазиатские республики используется энергетика, природный газ и связанные с этим компании. Россия способна изменить сложившуюся ситуацию на евразийском пространстве только за счет энергетики. Эта страна приобретает свой новый потенциал для «мягкой силы» и увеличения политического и экономического влияния благодаря огромным запасам нефти.

Начавшееся с 2000 года увеличение цены на нефть и газ привело к экономическому росту России и осуществлению важных реформ в этой стране. Как результат, российское руководство пересмотрело свою внешнюю и внутреннюю политику. В современной международной ситуации нефть и газ сделали Россию настоящей державой и соперником Соединенных Штатов. Энергетические компании России при поддержке национального правительства работают по всему миру. С 2000 года российские нефтяные и газовые гиганты, такие как «Лукойл», заняли видное место в энергетической сфере стратегически важных регионов Ближнего Востока, соседних государствах Восточной Европы и даже в США.

Россия обеспечивает половину поставок газа в Европу. Так, например, в 2006 году Германия на 40% обеспечивала себя поставками российского газа, Греция – на 84%, Австрия – на 78%, а страны Балтии и Финляндия – на 100%.

До прихода Путина к власти иностранные аналитики говорили о слабости и деградации российской экономики, а правительство этой страны обвиняли в коррумпированности и непрофессионализме. Тогда Россия была поверженной страной, не способной установить внутренний порядок. В 90-х годах прошлого века никто не думал, что эта страна когда-нибудь сможет вернуть себе положение сверхдержавы.

Улучшение экономической ситуации началось в 2000 году. Именно после этого благодаря политике российского руководства начала реализовываться идея «России как энергетической сверхдержавы». В рамках данной идеи мощь страны стала трактоваться как использование нефти и газа в качестве орудия усиления собственного влияния на соседние страны и на мировой арене в целом.

В результате этого в 2000-х годах с ростом мировых цен на топливо энергоресурсы стали базой развития российской экономики и сильным инструментом внешней политики и дипломатии. На саммите «Большой восьмерки» в 2005 году Путин заявил, что Россия, будучи к тому же и ядерной державой, обладает самым большим потенциалом в нефтегазовой области и лидирует на мировом энергетическом рынке. И действительно, Россия стала крупным производителем и экспортером нефти и природного газа и обладает наибольшими в мире запасами нефти и урана.

Словом, в 2003 году энергетическая стратегия России недвусмысленно заявила об энергоресурсах как политическом инструменте, а в доктрине 2009 года подчеркивается, что энергетическая тематика является новым направлением внешней политики этой страны.

Выводы

Итак, в своей статье мы коротко рассмотрели стратегию многополярности и энергетическую стратегию, которые применяет Россия в целях восстановления собственного положения сверхдержавы на глобальном уровне.

Как было отмечено, именно с приходом к власти Путина в 1999 году и улучшением ситуации в экономической, политической и военных сферах эти две стратегии оказались во главе угла российской внешней политики. В нашей статье мы рассмотрели стратегию многополярности и оспаривание Россией положения США в качестве гегемона на международной арене.

Испытав сильное унижение в постсоветский период, начиная с 2000 года русские, урегулировав свои внутригосударственные проблемы, вознамерились отомстить США и ограничить сферу интересов этой страны в геополитически важных регионах, таких как Кавказ, Западная и Центральная Азия.

Сделав ставку во внешней политике на стратегию многополярности, в последние годы Россия пытается играть активную роль в международных делах и проводить политику, совершенно не зависимую от Запада и США. С 2000 года Россия всевозможными способами старается нивелировать роль США в решении политических вопросов разных регионов мира и по некоторым из них занимает весьма принципиальную позицию, действуя вопреки воле американцев.

Протесты по поводу размещения систем противоракетной обороны США в Восточной Европе, война в Грузии, поддержка ядерной программы Ирана, поддержка правительства Башара Асада в Сирии, несогласие с военным вмешательством западных стран в эту страну и, наконец, последние события на Украине отчетливо демонстрируют решительную позицию России, направленную против Соединенных Штатов.

Принимая во внимание все эти шаги российского правительства, многие политологи и специалисты по международным отношениям говорят об окончании периода однополярности и начале новой холодной войны между Россией и США.

Подводя итог, можно прогнозировать, что Соединенные Штаты продолжат попытки сохранить нынешнее положение и собственную роль лидера и экспансиониста в мире, а Россия будет предпринимать усилия для изменения существующих условий и установления многополярной структуры в международных делах, бросая при этом вызов империалистическому строю.

При этом существует целый спектр тем, связанных со стратегиями безопасности, который свидетельствует о серьезном соперничестве между США и Россией. Сейчас основная часть международных проблем, в которых проявляется конкуренция между Москвой и Вашингтоном, касается стратегического паритета, проекта установления систем противовоздушной обороны, региональных кризисов в Афганистане, Северной Корее и Сирии, геополитического соперничества в плане расширения НАТО, нынешней дестабилизации ситуации на Украине, а также такого ряда вопросов, как соблюдение прав человека и предоставление политического убежища Эдварду Сноудену.

Таким образом, в настоящий момент все эти проблемы наводят на мысль о том, что российско-американские отношения наладятся еще далеко не скоро. На пути сближения двух стран постоянно находятся определенные негативные моменты, которые препятствуют их развитию.

Google translation !

Relations between Russia and the United States will improve any time soon, I’m sure the author of the article in the Iranian edition Iras

To restore its position in the international arena superpower Russia implements two strategies.

The first – a strategy to challenge the multipolarity of the international position of the United States. Second it’s energy strategy.

Consideration of these two strategies are addressed in this article.

In 1944, at the final stage of World War II, the term “superpower” used in relation to the two states the United States and the Soviet Union. Because of this, in the bipolar system of international relations at the head of two blocks of East and West were the two states, which occupy leading positions in the political, economic and military spheres.

In 1991, with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the communist ideology faded Russian foreign policy in the international arena, having lost all initiative, why the United States became the only superpower in the whole world.

Nineties of the last century were marked by severe political and economic crisis in Russia, the situation which has been aggravated by extreme instability and social unrest. For this reason, the country has not had a chance to play a prominent role in international affairs, and economic weakness deprived her of all the chances in the competition with the West.

At that time, Russia has virtually lost its international influence and the reasons were different: the collapse of the whole empire, and return to the borders of the XVII century, the economic recession and social crisis, environmental disaster, weakening of the state and the army, rising crime and corruption, a shaky economy and high inflation.

However, since 2000, and especially since Putin came to power Russia took a realistic stance on domestic and foreign policy and began to seek recovery of its superpower position in the international arena.

Now the question is: what strategy implements Russia to return lost items once?

To answer this question it is necessary to note that in recent years to achieve this goal, Russia holds the two strategies. Firstly, it is the pursuit of multipolarity and challenge the position of the United States in international politics. Second, is the implementation of certain measures in the energy sector.

Multipolarity strategy is a response to a policy of expansion and unilateralism by the United States. Energy strategy is the implementation of Russia’s national interests around the world and especially in Europe and Asia.

Russian strategy multipolarity

Currently, Russia is building its foreign policy on the principle of multipolarity. It does this with the international situation and the United States in order to ensure their own interests in terms of security.

According to official statements made by the Russian government, the Russian press for an independent foreign policy, aimed at the creation of a multipolar world in which Russia should take its place, and thus narrow the hegemony of the United States in international affairs. To achieve this, Russia, deciding their most pressing economic problems and to improve their financial position, based on military capabilities.

Since coming to power, Putin announced the three pillars of its course: the modernization of the economy, achieving a prominent role in the processes of global competition and the restoration of Russia’s position as a major new powers.

Tactics and specific steps of Russian politicians argue that they are extremely dissatisfied with the unilateral actions of the United States. Apparently in 2007, but secretly earlier, Russia, believing in their own power thanks to the achievements in the various fields of geopolitics and geo-economics, pursuing a policy of “direct resistance” to the American hegemony and voluntarism.

Putin’s Russia does not officially recognize the unipolar mode as the ordering principle of the world and believes that it is contrary to its national interests.

For example, in a very dramatic speech at the Munich Security Conference in 2007, Putin challenged unilateral tactics the United States and the country’s efforts to establish in the world unipolar mode. Even then, the Russian president said: “The regime of unipolarity is not only acceptable, but also its establishment in the present circumstances it is impossible in principle.”

He denied the allegation that in the current international situation, there is one center of authority, one center of decision-making, one master and one government,” and clearly defined Russia’s intention to seek to establish a reasonable balance between the interests of all the players present on the international scene.

In other words, the regime of unipolarity, formed after the Cold War, and was unable to finally gain a foothold. Offensive policy in the energy sector with a focus on their own position as an energy superpower, large-scale program to modernize the army, large supplies of arms to other countries, opposition to the establishment of air defense systems in Eastern Europe and the rejection of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), the establishment of new systems missile defense in the Leningrad region, support for Iran’s nuclear program, participation in events and help the Syrian government of Bashar al-Assad and, most importantly, with the last crisis in Ukraine – all this is clear evidence of Russia’s attempts to raise its status in international affairs, which resulted in and became the tensions with the United States.

The Russian leadership is convinced that the United States established a unipolar mode exists only temporarily, it is unstable and unfair acts, so the recent events in the world, the new coalition of states and the emergence of powers such as China, India and Russia, are challenging the regime. Proponents of this view believe that the established imperialist regime does not meet current international conditions, and pretty soon the world established a new balance of power.

Thus, the increased tension between Russia and the United States convinced the Russian is that this process can not only further weaken the Americans, but also lead to international isolation. The Russian government, referring to the current events in the world and the weakening of the United States because of their wrong policies in recent years, said the current situation is quite suitable for the transformation of the country into a major world power, or to put it differently, inter-regional power capable of influencing the international system and taken in the framework of its decision.

Russia strongly seeking a new distribution of power in world affairs. The increasing desire of this country to a new power-sharing based on the direct disagreement with American unipolarity and the notion that the management of international affairs is hardly possible without the participation of Russian diplomacy. Through a coalition with such powers as China and Iran, Russia is trying to put an end to voluntarism and political forces of the United States in the international arena.

On this basis Russia is positioning itself as a major power and constantly in all sorts of appeals on various international issues, criticized the United States for unipolarity, hegemony and interference in the internal affairs of other states. President Putin is trying to position his country as the powers that global significance and is actively involved in the resolution of global problems.

Meanwhile, the United States seeks to deprive Russia of the right to participate in international issues. If Russia is again stronger, influence and interests of the United States in its neighboring regions will be seriously challenged. Declarative and practical measures Russia to a gradual change in the status quo and achieve a higher level in deciding the destiny of the world gives rise to the American management of anxiety for their own leadership in international affairs after the collapse of the Soviet Union and all the more makes it to assess the situation as the actual maintenance of the status quo, because Russia is gradually gaining strength and weaken the United States. It is for this reason that the United States are trying to create as possible limitations to the development of Russia.

Russia’s energy strategy: energy as a lever of political pressure

The essence of Russia’s foreign policy under President Putin is in competition for the return of its role as a superpower. According to the Russian leader, the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 was the greatest tragedy of the twentieth century, so it is seeking recovery of Russia’s position that it had in the Soviet era. In this vein, Russia’s energy strategy aims to restore its superpower status.

With the world’s largest reserves of oil and gas, Russia in the international arena was able to demonstrate its strength in opposition to the European Union and the United States. Using a hidden policy of threats in terms of energy, the Kremlin leadership believes that the West, which is in dire need of Russian energy resources, there is no chance. Therefore, energy has become a powerful lever for Russian control policy of the European Union and countries in the Middle East and Central Asia.

His Russian energy strategy developed in the summer of 2003, when Vladimir Putin took her central place in Russian diplomacy. Then, in order to maintain the leading position in Russia in the global gas market measures have been taken to prevent the diversification of energy supplies, particularly for European countries.

Oil and gas reserves play a key role in the return of Russian leading role on the world stage. And in the Kremlin and in political circles in other countries, there is the idea that, thanks to its huge energy resources, Russia is able to regain his position as a superpower. There is no doubt that Russia has become a superpower in terms of energy.

Now this country is one of the largest suppliers of natural gas, and for the period from 1998 to 2004, Russia’s oil exports amounted to almost 48% of the total world supply of this raw material. Russia currently supplies the world market 22% of natural gas and a quarter from 40% of gas imports to Europe. Oil supply in this country is 12% of the world total, while in Europe the share of “black gold” of Russia is 22%.

In addition, Russia controls the supply of oil and gas from Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. So its oil diplomacy, primarily tied to the European countries, because the cost they are heavily dependent on Russian oil. Europe is aware that this is its weakest point, and therefore looking for alternative energy supplies.

Activity of Russian energy diplomacy felt in Asia. In this region, Russia supplies only 3% of its oil. Nevertheless, it is expected that by 2020, these exports may increase to 20%. In this regard, Russia is trying to go beyond attachment to only one user (referring to China), and expand the number of buyers of its fuel by Japan and South Korea.

Thus, Russia has become an energy superpower, so it uses its energy strategy to lift its own national spirit. Its leaders concerned about the preservation of the territorial unity of the country and preventing external threats, including those of a military nature.

To do this, Moscow’s efforts are aimed at being able to use energy exports as a political tool. So hostile country is punished by a refusal to supply them Russian energy, while strong friendly states on the contrary receive full support and allow their companies to invest in the development of Russia’s oil and gas industry.

Many Arab countries are also using energy as an instrument of political pressure, but they are powerless in terms of achieving its objectives and, in particular, can not achieve the destruction of Israel. However, energy plays a negative role in the formation of a superpower. The fact that the dependence on energy usually leads to a slight economic growth and political instability.

However, it should be noted that in this respect, Russia differs from other countries. Until 1991 this country was a military superpower, and after the collapse of the Soviet Union, it is partially retained its weapons capability, including nuclear arsenal and modern technology. In addition, Russia, as before the Soviet Union continued to supply weapons to other countries. Thus, the potential of this country is based on the vast energy resources and Soviet military equipment, which reinforces the idea of ​​it as an “energy superpower.”

Currently, instead of units of the Red Army to put pressure on Ukraine, the Caucasus and Central Asian republics used energy, natural gas and related companies. Russia is able to change the situation in the Eurasian space only by energy. The country gets its new potential for “soft power” and increasing political and economic influence thanks to its vast oil resources.

Begun in 2000 the increase in price of oil and gas has led to economic growth in Russia and the implementation of important reforms in the country. As a result, the Russian government has revised its foreign and domestic policies. In the current international situation, oil and gas prices have made Russia the present power and rival the United States. Russian energy companies, with the support of national governments are working around the world. Since 2000, the Russian oil and gas giants, such as “Lukoil”, featured prominently in the energy sector is strategically important regions of the Middle East, neighboring countries in Eastern Europe and even the United States.

Russia provides half of gas supplies to Europe. For example, in 2006 Germany 40% sufficient in the supply of Russian gas, Greece – 84%, Austria – 78%, and the Baltic countries and Finland – 100%.

Before Putin came to power, foreign analysts said the weakness and degradation of the Russian economy, and the Government has been accused of corruption and incompetence. Then Russia was defeated country, unable to establish internal order. In the 90s of the last century, no one thought that this country is ever to regain superpower status.

Improving the economic situation began in 2000. It was after this due to the policy of the Russian leadership was launched the idea of ​​”Russia as an energy superpower.” As part of this idea became the country’s might be interpreted as the use of oil and gas as a tool to strengthen its influence on neighboring countries and on the world scene as a whole.

As a result, in the 2000s, with the rise in world prices for fuel energy resources have become the foundation of the Russian economy and a strong instrument of foreign policy and diplomacy. At the summit of the “Big Eight” in 2005, Putin said that Russia, in addition to being a nuclear weapons state and has the greatest potential in the oil and gas industry and is a leader in the global energy market. Indeed, Russia has become a major producer and exporter of oil and natural gas and has the largest reserves in the world oil and uranium.

In short, in 2003, Russia’s energy strategy clearly stated about energy resources as a political tool, and in the doctrine of 2009 emphasized that energy issues is the new direction of the foreign policy of this country.

Conclusions

So, in his article, we briefly discussed the strategy of multi-polarity and energy strategy, which uses Russian in order to restore their situation superpower on a global level.

As noted, it is with Putin came to power in 1999 and the improvement of the situation in the economic, political and military spheres, these two strategies have been at the forefront of Russian foreign policy. In our article, we discussed the strategy of multi-polarity and challenging position of Russia in the United States as a hegemonic power in the international arena.

Having experienced a strong humiliation in the post since 2000, Russian resolve their domestic problems, set out to take revenge on the United States and limit the scope of the interests of this country in a geopolitically important regions such as the Caucasus, Western and Central Asia.

Making a bet in the foreign policy strategy of multipolarity, in recent years, Russia is trying to play an active role in international affairs and policies, it is not dependent on the West and the United States. Since 2000, Russia is trying all possible ways to level the role of the United States in dealing with political issues in different regions of the world and some of them occupies a very principled position, acting against the will of Americans.

Protests concerning the deployment of missile defense systems in Eastern Europe, the United States, the war in Georgia, support Iran’s nuclear program, support for the government of Bashar al-Assad in Syria, the opposition to the military intervention of Western countries in this country, and finally, the recent events in Ukraine demonstrate clearly the strong position of Russia directed against the United States.

Taking into account all these steps the Russian government, many political scientists and specialists in international relations say about the end of the period of unipolarity and the beginning of a new Cold War between Russia and the United States.

Summarizing, we can predict that the United States will continue to attempt to maintain the current situation and their own leadership and expansionist in the world, and Russia will make efforts to change the existing conditions and the establishment of a multipolar structure in international affairs, while throwing a challenge to the imperialist system.

In this case, there is a whole range of topics related to the security strategy that indicates a serious rivalry between the USA and Russia. Now the bulk of international problems, which manifest competition between Moscow and Washington, concerns the strategic parity, the project of establishing air defense systems, regional crises in Afghanistan, North Korea and Syria, geopolitical rivalry in terms of the expansion of NATO, the current destabilization of the situation in Ukraine, as well as a number of issues such as human rights and political asylum Edward Snowden.

So, now all these problems suggest that the Russian-American relations will improve further away any time soon. In the way of rapprochement between the two countries are always some negative things that hinder their development.

Aeg ärgata ! / Wake Up Call !

Is joining the European Union, Estonia has made ​​life better or worse?

This year marks the tenth anniversary of Estonia‘s accession to NATO and the European Union, and therefore, we will explore the views of readers already a decade of life in the European Union, the Estonian.

Dear reader, let me know what you think of the advantages and disadvantages of joining. Does life have gotten better or worse? Give examples of what is good and which is bad. How many lives would be different from when Estonia would not be a member of the European Union.

Comment Order:

Toomas Hendrik Ilves stated today that the EU is not somewhere in Brussels, We‘re EL.Jah, he has the right but this whole string of slogans äraleierdatud our lives better just will not do.
Years ago, of course, had a different slogans: The Soviet Union is not only in Moscow, Soviet Union, we are all together in our Do not like????
And how long was being a blessing to when we all work together we got to say, NOT FINALLY Russian power, no one’s a foreign power, we are free???
And those who are in bondage to sell us a new, does not deserve any respect.
ACTUALLY THE REPUBLIC OF ESTONIA ceased to exist at that moment as we exchange her crown for foreign capital VASTU.Vabatahtlikult seekord.Nii that in the future we can no longer not in any way suggest that we okupeeriti.Meie their elected representatives sold us out.

I have personally gone to the life and increases mõõnadega.Tänaseks is my life gone paremaks.Ma think that if Ireland had not taken ELiitu it would be even worse in life, but yes as an example in Switzerland and Norway, you may have also gone to a better life, but do as well as Norway and Switzerland?

anonymous commentators:

puslik!
05/01/2014 12:24
Only the CIS is the best!
Long live the Edgar and the euro-skeptics!

, together with the improved
05/01/2014 12:37
What’s good, it’s expensive. Better, but more expensive.

uu
05/01/2014 12:50
Certainly the Estonian life changed for the better ! But õinud TAA would be way better if we had a country led by the people . Who has the ability to provide for a longer and think but not one as far pääva hosts . There are no people in the state who would be at the head of the country’s economy and industry siigi able to develop in order to increase incomes and narrowing of unemployment. Also, we are considered to be better than some of the officials of the Erta Houses and apartments for lease , and this serves the uncontrolled sector privatization . Instead of COUNTRY ‘d build SOTSJAAL LIVING SPACE ON BOTH saw it DOES Finnish state who knows OUT Nana and evaluating the YOUTH leave their homeland . Instead of when to walk out of the country maates WHERE ARE THEY much bigger opportunity to start an independent life than they do EESTIS.Samuti do not caring julgoleku in the population of the country . War threats have not disappeared kuhuki . But we can not bomb variendite cared for , will not be built new or old KAA is not done right. Also, it is a country that takes its peoples which has led to unscrupulous people away from the flow is useful just in our nation , and the country ‘s enemies thus decreases as the country’s defense capability. Politicians tulekds be more considerate of your nation’s life and develop each KÜLKSEL JÄRIE over the country’s economy in order to increase state revenues , and in order to together as the public welfare .

Ivo
05/01/2014 12:57
How anyone: 5 percent of local bosses of the euro has certainly gone a better life, the rest is worse

norm
05/01/2014 13:00
In terms of the survival of the people of Estonia , the EU has made ​​the situation worse by joining . So far, all the government lost steam after the EU and NATO , and it, to please the U.S.. If you look at the political issues raised , it looks like everything else Highlighted as how to increase the birth rate and reduce emigration . Living in the EU , Estonia has gone several times more expensive than it was prior to the EU . And this does not help speaking, that wages have risen , unfortunately, is the cost of a number of countries in the old EU -level , but the income is very far from that .

As well as the continued existence of the Estonian society today, the debate is not , then you can assume that the situation will deteriorate even further in the near future will bring a wave of immigration in addition to the southern borders of the EU study. Why do I think this ? Already have elucidated the nature of the area in and how much is vamis immigrants to receive . Teles had only recently been advertising in favor of immigrants : a la a person would think of himself as an immigrant somewhere .

Our politicians today lack any understanding of what the interests of Estonia in the EU should do or how to protect the interests of Estonia . If you look at these forums that have been , we can see how our politicians are talking about it , you will see that half of the EU countries ‘ interests should be regulated more consistently , that today the EU countries ( especially the old-timers ) are tearing decks of their party . But our politicians are forgetting that that’s it : every normal state is trying to take care of their own people eekõige . Only our political fools have taken the position where they are ready to sacrifice their own people on behalf of the EU , where the general . And now it will be seen as the voice of the EU core countries do not behave so . And they are not going to behave as well as the lack of enesehävitajalik attitude, which is so characteristic of Estonian politicians.

Petya Corr
05/01/2014 13:08
worse than that before paying the chefs euro euros paid 500 euros and 500 euros for the same value today

Current topic
05/01/2014 13:31
I got a tick injections, the price of 35 EUR, can not remember that last for 500 euros would be paid for. Now, look, most of the prices, so-wage emails. wages.

Pjarnac
05/01/2014 13:44
Thirty years ago, the USSR was like … Estonia Estonian USSR as foreigners. Throughout the USSR came here as abroad. Now the Union as the Estonian euro Tajikistan USSR, corvée periphery, the poor, the abandoned, meaningless, pointless
Only bei’del have to live here for good.

Mrs.
05/01/2014 14:18
Is not this so and so being such a status, there have been many failings, but good things too. It’s good that we have a new government, and youth ministers, or really hope that goes better.

I say
05/01/2014 14:59
well shitty

khmm ..
05/01/2014 15:08
Uukirjutas:
Certainly the Estonian life changed for the better! But õinud TAA would be way better if we had a country led by the people. Who has the ability to provide for a longer and think about wh …
1 reply
in the long run, you’d have to go to school and learn to write. is generally the case in the long term, so that it does not work right away. you can see the results of decisions taken by the present government in 20 years. Edgar is a short-term guy. potatoes and firewood, and soon the voters will see that it is built on pakasuuha. Now we will provide escorts for doing unnecessary work for free transportation and municipal bank. These are all short-term actions are immediately visible result, but which are not sustainable in the long term, and probably doing more damage than it’s worth.

opinion
05/01/2014 17:31
better

Lonni
05/01/2014 17:36
Well, it is too early yet to assess.
Disappointment in Soviet Union took half a century.
We’ll see how much the EU is going to take a Disappointment?

kalew
05/01/2014 17:39
better. there is no need to evaluate the cost of the individual before and now. We really do not know how anyone could fall in prices after the economy had long euros, or a crown would have had extreme pressure as the economic situation from 2008 to 2012. The European Union has been the full benefits of the free movement of both the state budget than all together. Incidentally, for those who now also loves to go elsewhere in the world, digging ditches and pulling crud boundaries would still have been a very closed.

svex
05/01/2014 19:47
Estonia’s average salary is less than the current time, however, earned euros while now boast that higher wages only for those up there Toompeal SES has risen properly

FAQ
05/01/2014 20:32
Such Lonnid shape opinion but, fortunately, Adult wall! Dblikul what went on for half a century to figure out that the NL is hideous occupation of the Estonian people and the rape?

naturally
05/01/2014 21:29
worse.

naturally
05/01/2014 21:38
let’s not only take into consideration the prices and wages. NL is not damaged and destroyed in Estonian culture, language and values ​​70aastaga as much as it has happened in the last few years. the nation and the country has been threatened with collapse. Rural, where the state eksitentsi base has been destroyed, schools are destroyed, people are forced to leave home places economic pressure. The EU has been able to destroy us faster than a few years, when the NL 70aastaga. Methods are simply clever propaganda better. all still freedom, democracy, and freedom of movement under the banner. The EU, however, has already started about eeltegevus 20a back.

20 years of corporate
02/05/2014 10:03
I personally have gone or material is cooler than what can be said about all of my dear acquaintances , which includes a lot of good professionals, educators , musicians , and artists. They do not treat their teeth , their every penny spent on housing , educating children and kasvataminele . The parts are bankrupt and are looking for new outlets meelehetlikult .
Our children are raised and educated in the world , and spread out a few of them are returning , which is really a tragedy .
Hull is that foolish and short-sighted policies paremliberalistide a result of living in the country , which are difficult to love , and the incitement of hatred between them because of the crazily .

Democracy does not work at any rate , things will be decided over our heads and yell the Stalinist propaganda accompaniment. Journalism is corruptible lakeide power to make just such a brainwashed as those in power need . All are built on the opposition .

Small entrepreneurs have the force of a small-timer who habitation always have to cheat a little , because otherwise, the doors should be shut down quickly . As an entrepreneur, I find this very alatuks politics and I am offended by the bottom hinge .
Help and support for dividing those who are doing better , and allow the bubbles start to do something , not the makers.
20 years of hard driving companies have never attracted media attention , but then we read each day blissfully pernicious , decadent life promovatest werewolf heroes . Also, the state has never shared any kind of recognition .
Not long ago , we no longer have any autonomy or self-esteem. Everything is off the Haggle . In this light, the whole europalagan just ridiculous .
In that Estonia does not have a future, it simply breaks down.

naturally
02/05/2014 20:29
absolutely agree.
also has received the ultimate freedom of expression. 90s book dared to talk about things in the media.
Now listen, and wonder what the wise and educated public figures out of the mouth of doing. they can not be so dumb.
Consequently, they are either intimidated or paid for. Adult only meiesugsued commentators dare to squeak a little more. and who knows where our nimedki has already been written.
The situation is still very spooky, actually.

Läbikukkunud kapitalism tekitab globaalset ebavõrdsust / The failed global capitalism creates inequality.

2079473624_35ebbe0bee_z-448x293-300x196

 

Kapitalismist läbi imbunud maailm peegeldab selles valitsevat sotsiaalset ja majanduslikku ebavõrdsust; vahe rikaste ja vaeste vahel on enamikes maades alates 1980. aastatest ainult suurenenud. Thomas Piketty hiljuti ilmunud raamat “Capital in the Twenty-first Century” väidab, et kui käesolev trend jätkub, näevad inimesed ka sellega kaasnevaid kohutavaid tagajärgi. Tegemist ei ole kõigest teadusliku ennustusega. Erinevad viimastel aastatel toimunud sotsiaalsed ja poliitilised liikumised nagu näiteks Occupy Wall Street on tõestuseks sellest, et üha enam inimesi märkab ühiskonnas valitsevat ebavõrdsust ning püüab sellele jõuliselt vastu astuda.

 

Prantsuse majandusteadlane Thomas Piketty avaldas hiljuti 700- leheküljelise suurteose nimega “Capital in the Twenty-first Century”, mille pealkiri paljudele ilmselt saksa filosoofi ja majandusteadlase Karl Marxi tuntud teost “Kapital” meenutab. Marxi ennustatud kapitalismi lõpp kunagi kätte ei jõudnudki, kuid Piketty usub, et ka tänaste majandusteadlaste tavapärased selgitused kapitalismist ei ole piisavalt veenvad, sest erinevalt klassikalistest majandusteadlastest nagu Karl Marx, David Ricardo ja John Stuart Mill ei pööra praegused majandusteadlased piisavalt tähelepanu kapitali kogumisele – säästmisele, investeerimisele ja rikkuse kasvatamisele. Piketty usub, et kapitalism on pime ning ainus viis selle hukatuslikust spiraalist pääseda on määrata progressiivne varamaks.

 

Kapitalismi olemus ja ajalugu

Kapitalism on viimaste sajandite jooksul tekitanud tohutu hüppe inimühiskonna progressis – oleme saavutanud eelnevalt kujutlematud materiaalsed elustandardid ning igasuguse inimpotentsiaali kujutlematu kasvu. Kapitalismi sisemine dünaamika tekitab kasude kõrval aga ka ebakindlust ning seetõttu on kapitalismi kasv alati teatavat vastuseisu näinud. Paljude kapitalistlike ühiskondade poliitiline ja institutsionaalne ajalugu ongi tegelikkuses püüelnud justnimelt selle ebastabiilsuse maandamise poole; vaid 20. sajandi keskpaiku kaasaegse heaoluriigi tekkega on hakanud kapitalism ja demokraatia teatavas harmoonias koos eksisteerima.

Kapitalism on majanduslike ja sotsiaalsete suhete süsteem, milles olulisel kohal on eraomand, teenuste ja kaupade vahetus ning nende teenuste ja kaupade tootmise ning turustamise kontroll läbi turumehhanismide. Kapitalismi mõningad elemendid on inimühiskondades eksisteerinud juba aegade algusest alates, kuid täpsemalt loetakse kapitalismi sünniks 17. ja 18. sajandit, kui mõnedes Euroopa osades ja Põhja- Ameerikas kõik kapitalismi jaoks vajalikud komponendid kokku said. Kui läbi ajaloo olid enamik majapidamisi tarbinud enamasti just asju mida nad ise tootsid ja vastupidi, siis just kapitalismi tulekuga hakkas rahvastik enamikke eluks vajalikke tarbeasju ostma, müües selleks maha enamiku asju, mida nad tootsid.

Turule orienteeritud leibkondade kasvuga ilmnes ka kapitalismi tohutu mõju peaaegu igale inimtegevuse aspektile. Kapitalismile eelnevatel aegadel olid traditsioonilised institutsioonid need, mis allutasid inimesed erinevatele kogukondlikele, poliitilistele ja religioossetele struktuuridele, hoides seega ära suuremad muutused ja progressi. Kapitalismi tulekuga saavutasid üksikisikud suurema kontrolli ja vastutuse oma elude üle, kui nad siiani kordagi olid kogenud – tegemist oli nii vabastava kui ka kohutava muutusega, millega kaasnes nii progress kui ka tagasilangus. Täna on kapitalismi kitsaskohaks tendents, et üha enam varasid on järjest üksikumate inimeste kätes.

 

Kapitalism ja ebavõrdus

Majandusteadlaste kapitalismi puudutavad argumendid on kokkuvõtlikult jagunenud kaheks: esimene, Karl Marxist alguse saanud traditsioon uskus, et kapitalism leiab kasumi vähenemises oma enesehävitusliku lõpu ning teise äärmuse järgi, mille populariseerijaks oli 1971. aastal Nobeli auhinna võitnud Simon Kuznets, peaks ebavõrdsus majanduste kasvades ja keerukamaks muutudes aina vähenema. Piketty arvates ei ole kumbki neist argumentidest tõendusmaterjalidega kinnitatav. Oma teoses näitab ta, et ei ole põhjust uskuda, et kapitalism võiks kunagi ebavõrdsuse probleemi lahendada. Pigem muutub ebavõrdsus postindustriaalses kapitalistlikus maailmas peaaegu igal pool aina hullemaks.

Postindustriaalsed sotsiaalsed trendid on omanud tohutut mõju ka sotsiaalse ebavõrduse kasvule. Kui näiteks perekonna sissetulek igal majandusastmel on eelmisega võrreldes kahekordne, siis nende perekondade sissetulekud, kes asuvad karjääriredelil kõrgemal positsioonil peaksid ka kasvama tunduvalt kiiremini, kui neist madalamatel ametitel olevatel perekondadel, samas kui majanduslikult madalamal positsioonil olevatel peredel ei ole märgata mingitki majanduslikku kasvu.

Selline süsteem seletab lahti vaesuse olemasolu. Kõik, ka kõige elementaarsemad vajadused nagu näiteks toit on rahuldatavad tarbekaupadega, mida müüakse kasumi eemärgi. Seega, ehkki tehniliselt on kõigil igapäevaselt vajadus teatud koguse toidu järgi, on kapitalistlikus süsteemis tegemist “efektiivse” nõudlusega vaid siis, kui inimene suudab tarbekauba eest tasuda. Taolise olukorra vastus seisneb tootmise organiseerimises. Kapitalistlik süsteem on ebaõiglane ja ebavõrdne, sest selles osaleb väike hulk inimesi, kes kogu tootmist kontrollib. Kuidas saab olla tegemist sissetulekute võrdsusega süsteemis, kus vaid vähemus valvab ja kontrollib omandiõigust asjade üle, mis maailmas valitsevad on: tehased, farmid, miinid ja kontorihooned?

Kõik eelnev on tavalistele inimestele märgata. Occupy Wall Street ja sellega kaasnenud ülemaailmsed protestiaktsioonid kandsid endas põhimõtteid nagu solidaarsus, millega seoses püüti ka ümber sõnastada näiteks tööjõu väärtustamist; OWS aktivistid püüdsid ette kujutada sotsi-poliitilist ja majanduslikku alternatiivi, mis pakuks võimaluse suurema võrdsuse saavutamiseks. Piketty raamatu üks olulisemaid eesmärke ongi ehk näidata, et aktivistidel üle maailma on õigus – ta kirjeldab olukorda, millele nii paljud inimesed on juba ammu mõelnud. Ebavõrdsus on globaalne nähtus ning Pikettyl näib olevat sellele ka globaalne lahendus: globaalne varade maksustamine kombineerituna kõrgemate maksumääradega suurema sissetulekuga inimestele.

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Capitalism permeated the world that reflects the prevailing social and economic inequality; the difference between the rich and the poor in most countries since the 1980s. increased only . Thomas Piketty have recently published the book “Capital in the Twenty – First Century ” argues that if this trend continues , people will see the dire consequences associated therewith . This is not just a scientific prediction . Different in recent years, the social and political movements such as Occupy Wall Street is proof that more and more people will notice inequalities in society and tries to forcefully confront .

French economist Thomas Piketty have recently published a 700 – page masterpiece called ” Capital in the Twenty – First Century ,” the title of which many probably German philosopher and economist Karl Marx’s well-known work “Capital ” recalls . Marx predicted capitalism, the end never received never got , but Piketty believes that in today’s economists, the conventional explanations of capitalism is not convincing enough , because unlike the classical economists such as Karl Marx , David Ricardo and John Stuart Mill did not turn the current economic researchers enough attention to fundraising – saving, investment and wealth production. Piketty believes that capitalism is blind , and the only way to escape is to determine the pernicious spiral of progressive property tax .

The nature of capitalism and history

During the last few centuries , capitalism has created a huge surge in the progress of human society – we have achieved previously unimaginable material living standards of all human potential unimaginable growth. Capitalism creates the internal dynamics of the side benefits as well as the uncertainty and, therefore, the growth of capitalism has always seen some opposition . For many capitalist societies, political and institutional history is actually precisely on this instability has striven toward mitigation ; the mid-20th century with the advent of the modern welfare state , capitalism , and democracy in particular have begun to coexist in harmony .

Capitalism is an economic and social relations in a system in which private property is important , the exchange of goods and services and the services and goods production and marketing control through market mechanisms . Some elements of capitalism, human societies have existed since the beginning of time , but more is considered the birth of capitalism in the 17th and 18th centuries , when in some parts of Europe and North America, all of the necessary components for a total of capitalism did. Where were the majority of households throughout history have used mostly just the things that they themselves produced , and vice versa , it just started with the advent of capitalism, most of the population lives utensils needed to purchase by selling to off most of the things they produced .

Market-oriented households also showed growth of capitalism huge impact on almost every aspect of human activity . Traditional institutions of capitalism in previous seasons were the ones that enslaved people to various community-based , political , and religious structures , thus avoiding major changes and progress . Achieved with the advent of capitalism, individuals have greater control and responsibility over their lives than they had hitherto never experienced – it was such a release , as well as the dreaded change , which resulted in both the progression and relapse . Today, capitalism is the bottleneck of the tendency that more and more resources are becoming loneliest people’s hands.

Capitalism and inequality

Economists capitalism arguments can be summarized into two categories: first , Karl Marx began a tradition believed that capitalism finds a decline in profits in its enesehävitusliku end and the opposite extreme , for which music to the 1971st year, the Nobel Prize-winning Simon Kuznets , the inequality in economies grow and become more complex ever- diminishing. Piketty opinion, neither of these arguments with evidence to confirm it. His book , he shows that there is no reason to believe that capitalism could never solve the problem of inequality . Rather, the post-industrial capitalist inequality almost everywhere in the world to get worse .

Post-industrial social trends have had a tremendous impact on the growth of social inequality . If , for example, family income every economic level are compared with the previous two-fold, their families, incomes , who are in their careers at a higher position should also grow much more rapidly than those of lower agencies to families , while economic positions of subordination families have not noticed any kind of economic growth.

Such a system would explain the presence rid of poverty . Everyone, including the most basic needs such as food is to satisfy the consumer products , which are sold at profit targets. Thus , although technically all need a certain amount of food on a daily basis by the capitalist system is an ‘ effective ‘ demand only if the person is able to pay for the commodity . The answer to this situation lies in the organization of production . The capitalist system is unjust and unequal, because it involves a small number of people who check the entire production . How can there be equality of incomes in a system where only a minority of supervised and monitored by the right of ownership over things that are prevailing in the world : the factories , farms , mines , and office buildings?

All this has been noticed by the ordinary people . Occupy Wall Street and the resulting global protests wore itself the principles of solidarity, which was taken in connection with the reformulated as employee appreciation ; OWS activists tried to imagine the socio – political and economic alternative that would provide the opportunity to achieve greater equality . Piketty book is perhaps one of the most important goals to show that activists around the world are right – it describes a situation in which so many people have already been thinking about . Inequality is a global phenomenon and Pikettyl seems that the global solution : a global tax assets combined with higher tax rates for people with higher incomes .

Berlin Fears a High Court Ruling Could Threaten the European Union.

The Greek economy ended its four-year exile from international markets last week with a triumphant 3 billion euro (about $4.1 billion) bond sale. The global financial media trumpeted this somewhat unexpected achievement as a sign that things were finally turning around in the European Union’s most blighted country. Media reports to the contrary, Greece’s return to the market does nothing to resolve Greece’s systemic economic deficiencies. Instead, it enables Greece to build up more debt, which will leave it a permanent bailout state for the foreseeable future.

In any case, events in Athens, a city perennially destined to be a dependent on the great powers of any given time, will not be pivotal to the future of the European Union. Nor will decisions made in Spain, Italy or even France. Instead, the Continent’s fate in the 21st century will be decided in Germany. Germany stands increasingly alone as the guardian of the very European order that allowed it to prosper and quelled its historical insecurities about its neighbors.

Something as seemingly banal as a conversation at an Italian restaurant in Berlin does a much better job of illustrating how far Europe actually is from recovery, and how the fate of the Continent lies in Germany’s hands. In the first days of April, German Interior Minister Thomas de Maiziere met with a group of scholars of constitutional law for dinner and discussion of the options for limiting the reach of Germany’s powerful Federal Constitutional Court. The meeting stands testament to the German fear of seeing the European order crumble and to the severity of the political crisis brewing under the surface in the Continent.

The Perils of Unemployment

Stratfor has warned for years that the economic downturn that began battering Europe in 2008 would evolve into a full-blown social and political crisis. Nearly six years have gone by, and the European system remains as dysfunctional today as it was then. Great Depression-levels of unemployment have become the norm in Southern Europe, and have begun to creep northward.

Growing numbers of the unemployed and underemployed are fertile ground for political radicalism. Now, hopelessness about the future of Europe is moving into the mainstream. In election after election from France to Hungary, nationalist and Euroskeptic parties continue to gain in popularity to the point that they are becoming entrenched parts of the political system.

They remain a minority, for now. But many of them, in particular the National Front in France, have had to moderate some of the more radical parts of their platforms to break into the political mainstream. As popular discontent against what is seen as the failures of the pro-European mainstream parties grows alongside the economic crisis, so does support for some of the more nationalistic policies espoused by the far right.

The modern European establishment has only recently begun acknowledging the threat of radical parties. Next month’s EU parliamentary elections have amplified the establishment’s concerns. National elites have a tendency to deride what they perceive as loud and unrefined fringe groups, and to show considerable surprise when they become a political mainstay.

More aggressive commentators have denounced the European leadership for allocating inordinate resources to stabilizing the Continent’s financial sector while pursuing tepid policies to stem the unemployment crisis. But while unemployment is ultimately a much more dangerous risk factor for the medium- to long-term stability of Europe, it is also a more difficult problem to solve.

Unemployment is a deeply political issue, much more so than a bank’s balance sheet. It intersects not only with issues of economics, but also with myriad others including social welfare and sovereignty. While it is generally agreed that a growing economy leads to lower unemployment, the mechanics of job creation are not as clear-cut as those governing sovereign debt risk.

A sea change on how European elites, and Germany in particular, view the crisis now appears to lie ahead. The strategic threat posed by unemployment-fueled nationalism has become a core preoccupation in both Berlin and Brussels. It is becoming clearer that while current stopgap measures, including European Central Bank President Mario Draghi’s famous open-ended bailout guarantee, may have warded off a fatal shock to Europe’s economy, they are doing little to revive it.

Actually reviving it would require particularly bold action from the European leadership. Once-taboo topics such as giving the European Central Bank the ability to pursue monetary financing or mutualizing the debt of eurozone members are now openly discussed at the highest levels of European government.

The thinking has also changed within the German leadership, for whom austerity used to be a quasi-religious mantra and fears of inflation bordered on irrational. Now, even some of the most hawkish representatives of the German Central Bank are making cautious overtures regarding an expansionary monetary policy, especially as the European Union, including Germany, veers toward deflation.

The Limits of the European Central Bank

Calls for the European Central Bank to replicate the policies of its overseas counterparts have grown louder. These often overlook the fact that unlike the Federal Reserve and the Bank of England, which have guaranteeing employment as a charter goal, the sole mandate of the European Central Bank is to ensure price stability, much like the German Central Bank on which it was modeled. Even then, the bank is remarkably constrained. For example, it cannot directly purchase government bonds. These legal constraints can be changed, but only through a difficult political process.

With interest rates at 0.25 percent and data unclear as to the effectiveness of negative interest rates, quantitative easing is becoming increasingly popular, even within the European Central Bank. It is one of the few powerful tools the European leadership has left to kick-start the Continent’s moribund economy. It also happens to be the only one that has at least a veneer of legality. Even then, it is hard to conceive of a meaningful program on par with the United States’ three rounds of quantitative easing that could be easily contained within the bounds of the European Central Banks’s inflation control-only mandate.

Herein lies the root of the problem, which is that all the measures that might reboot the European economy in essence require sacrificing more sovereignty to a central European authority. Even at this hour, when consensus is slowly but surely building on the political side for more drastic action, the European Union’s perennial mandate problem is derailing any hope of recovery.

So far, the European leadership (including the courts) has shown itself to be remarkably creative in finding loopholes and drafting tack-on amendments to sidestep some of the most cumbersome EU legislation and get the job done. Unfortunately, there is no easy answer when it comes to nations having to surrender sovereignty, whether economic, political or social, to a group of barely accountable European technocrats.

The debate surrounding the role of the German Federal Constitutional Court comes against this backdrop. The court, a revered institution in Germany, is spearheading the defense of national interests against perceptions of EU overreach into sovereign matters.

A Threat From the Constitutional Court

Much like the U.S. Supreme Court, upon which Germany’s highest court was partially modeled after World War II, the German Federal Constitutional Court is the final interpreter of constitutional law. Accordingly, it has the last word on the legality of any treaties, agreements or actions undertaken by Germany at the European level.

The court already has challenged German involvement in some of the more creative legal acrobatics undertaken by the European Union. These include the establishment of the EU emergency bond-buying plan known as the Outright Monetary Transactions program. In that case, the German Federal Constitutional Court proceeded with caution and referred the case to the European Court of Justice. But there are strong indications that it could be more aggressive in future cases. A rejection of government moves in a landmark case, such as one involving potential German participation in a strengthened quantitative easing program, could derail the Continent’s recovery.

Economic policy is not the only issue on which the court has proven to be a thorn in German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s side. German electoral law currently requires a party to win a minimum of 5 percent of the national vote to enter the national parliament, a measure designed to keep small radical parties out of an already relatively fragmented parliament. Berlin used to apply a similar threshold to German parties seeking access to the European Parliament. The German constitutional court recently struck down this requirement, and some politicians fear it could soon do the same for German federal elections. The current surge in popularity of nationalist parties heretofore excluded from the legislature may jeopardize the existence of a strong government in Berlin, the only real decision-making body in a battered Europe.

The court’s current course of action poses an existential threat to Merkel’s political career and to Germany’s economy and stability, which continue to depend on the health of the European Union and the economies of its constituent members. Should the court so rule, Germany could rapidly lose its place as the Continent’s strongman, being condemned instead to internal paralysis as it watches Europe slowly stagnate.

As with most of the really important developments in Europe, the battle between the court and the German government will be drawn out and will remain out of the public eye for now. Still, the very existence of open discussions about reducing the power of one of the most trusted and impartial institutions in Germany testifies to how seriously the chancellor’s office takes the danger of the fallout from the court’s potential ruling.

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